400 Must Have Words for the TOEFL » LESSON 7 - Computers

Word List
  • circulate [ˈsərkjəˌleɪt] v.
    To move throughout an area or group; to move along a somewhat circular route
    The gossip circulated quickly through the small town.
    Usage tips     Circulate is often followed by through.
    Parts of speech     circulation n.
  • corrode [kəˈrəʊd] v.
    To be slowly weakened by chemical reactions
    Sitting in salt water, the old coins corroded and became very easy to break.
    Usage tips     A familiar kind of corrosion produces rust, the reddish coating on iron or steel that has been exposed to air and water.
    Parts of speech     corrosion n.
  • derive [dɪˈraɪv] v.
    To come from, usually through a long, slow process
    The Cyrillic alphabet was derived from the Greek alphabet.
    Usage tips     Derive is often followed by from.
    Parts of speech     derivation n., derivative adj.
  • detection [dɪˈtekʃən] n.
    Discovering something that cannot easily be found
    With new medical technology, the detection of cancer is much easier nowadays.
    Usage tips     Detection is often followed by an of phrase.
    Parts of speech     detect v., detectable adj.
  • expeditiously [ˌekspɪˈdɪʃəslɪ] adv.
    Quickly and efficiently
    Using carrier pigeons, the military commanders exchanged messages expeditiously.
    Parts of speech     expedite v., expedition n., expeditious adj.
  • implement [ˈɪmpləˌmɛnt] v.
    To make use of; to carry out
    Not until after the new software was installed could we implement the new filing system.
    Parts of speech     implement n., implementation n.
  • innovative [ˈɪnəˌveɪdɪv] adj.
    Ahead of the times; novel
    The innovative use of props and lighting drew many favorable comments.
    Parts of speech     innovation n.
  • installation [ˌɪnstəˈleɪʃ(ə)n] n.
    Setting something into position for use
    Installation of the new software takes only four minutes.
    Parts of speech     install v.
  • maintenance [ˈmeɪntɪnəns] n.
    The act of keeping something in good condition
    The only problem with living in such a big house is that it requires a lot of maintenance.
    Parts of speech     maintain v.
  • simulation [ˌsɪmjəˈleɪʃ(ə)n] n.
    An imitation or representation
    To test car safety, automobile makers study crash simulations.
    Parts of speech     simulate v., simulator n.

TOEFL Prep I Circle the most likely meaning of the word part that is shared within each set of words.

  1. circulate, circumnavigate, circuit
    The root circ / circum probably means
    • a. around
    • b. broken
    • c. fair
    • d. straight
  2. innovative, novel, renovate
    The root nov probably means
    • a. clear
    • b. old
    • c. new
    • d. sweet
  3. installation, implement, imprison
    The prefix in-/im- probably means
    • a. aside
    • b. behind
    • c. in
    • d. out

TOEFL Prep II Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

  1. Please make sure this information (circulates / derives) throughout the office quickly.
  2. The (installation / simulation) of the new telephones took three days.
  3. In order to stay on schedule, we need to complete this project as (expeditiously / innovatively) as possible.
  4. The smuggler moved cautiously through the airport to avoid (detection / maintenance).
  5. Years of neglect had caused the building’s water pipes to (corrode / implement).
Answer Key
  1. a
  2. c
  3. c
  1. circulate
  2. installation
  3. expeditiously
  4. detection
  5. corrode
Answer Key

TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

As dependence on computers increases, so does the need for technical support. From installation of software to detection of viruses, computers require constant vigilance. Most larger companies find it most expeditious to maintain in-house computer staff. Many smaller companies, however, can’t fund their own full-time, in-house technical help. Instead, many of them assign the task of computer maintenance to a current employee who may not have any formal training. Rather, these “computer buffs” have derived their skills through practice and self-training. These selfappointed tech specialists, however, often cannot solve bigger problems. What’s more, they may see their office relations corrode when they are swamped with basic user questions that they simply don’t have time to address. For these reasons, many small companies choose to employ a freelance technical assistant who circulates among clients on an as-needed basis. With their professional training, these consultants may propose innovative solutions to users’ unique needs, which could vary from tracking inventory to simulating mechanized processes. They can implement new programs, train personnel, and escape the workplace before being asked, “How can I cut this file and paste it somewhere else?”

  1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?
    • a. Larger companies are better off using freelance technical consultants.
    • b. Computer maintenance and troubleshooting cuts into employee productivity.
    • c. Self-trained technical support personnel are often as effective as trained professionals.
    • d. Smaller companies may benefit from hiring occasional technical support.
  2. The article implies that the question How do I cut and paste a file? is
    • a. too basic to require professional attention
    • b. a good question to give to in-house tech support
    • c. appropriate for a freelancer to address
    • d. a good topic for a training program
Answer Key
Answer Key
  1. d
  2. a
Favorite Books

The study of the English language has spread all over the world, and high school and college students everywhere have come to realize that language mastery depends on the possession of a comprehensive vocabulary. This is just what 1100 Words You Need to Know has been offering through the five earlier editions and continuing on this sixth one.

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