400 Must Have Words for the TOEFL » LESSON 12 - Surgery

Word List
  • anesthesia [ˌænəsˈθiʒə] n.
    Techniques for reducing sensation and feeling,specially to control pain
    The Civil War was the first American war when anesthesia was widely used in surgery on soldiers.
    Usage tips     Anesthesia and anesthetic are often used interchangeably.
    Parts of speech     anesthetic n., adj.
  • augment [ɔːgˈment] v.
    To make bigger or better by adding to
    In some types of popular cosmetic surgery people augment parts of their bodies.
    Parts of speech     augmentation n.
  • certifiably [ˌsərdəˈfaɪəbli] adv.
    In a manner that is officially recognized
    He couldn’t be institutionalized until he was declared certifiably insane.
    Parts of speech     certify v., certification n., certificate n., certifiable adj.
  • complication [ˌkɑmpləˈkeɪʃ(ə)n] n.
    A factor that makes something more difficult or complex
    The surgeons could not easily stop the bleeding because of complications related to the patient’s diabetes.
    Parts of speech     complicate v.
  • cure [kjʊə:r] v.
    To restore to health
    They say laughter can help cure many illnesses.
    Parts of speech     cure n.
  • implant [ɪmˈplænt] v.
    To set in firmly; to insert in the body surgically
    The actress had cheek implants to make her face look fuller.
    Parts of speech     implantation n.
  • inject [ɪnˈdʒekt] v.
    To insert a liquid by means of a syringe
    The doctor used a needle to inject the medicine slowly into her arm.
    Parts of speech     injection n.
  • obese [əʊˈbiːs] adj.
    Excessively overweight
    More Americans are obese now because U.S. culture encourages overeating and discourages exercise.
    Parts of speech     obesity n.
  • procedure [prəˈsidʒər] n.
    A specific way of performing or doing something
    The flight attendant explained the emergency evacuation procedure.
    Parts of speech     proceed v., procedural adj.
  • scar [skɑːr] n.
    A mark on the skin left after a wound has healed; a lasting sign of damage, either mental or physical
    The surgery was successful, but it left a large scar across her abdomen.
    Parts of speech     scar v.

TOEFL Prep I For each word, choose the word or phrase that has the most similar meaning. Write the letter of your choice on the line.

  1. scar _______
    • (a) bandage
    • (b) mark
    • (c) shine
    • (d) cover
  2. augment _______
    • (a) take away
    • (b) discuss
    • (c) use
    • (d) add to
  3. complication _______
    • (a) added difficulty
    • (b) improved performance
    • (c) method of training
    • (d) prediction about results
  4. obese _______
    • (a) attractive
    • (b) healthy
    • (c) very overweight
    • (d) high
  5. cure _______
    • (a) heal
    • (b) study
    • (c) diagnose
    • (d) tie up

TOEFL Prep II Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

  1. The (procedure / scar) to prepare for the surgery took four hours.
  2. Only seriously (certifiable / obese) people should get their stomachs surgically reduced.
  3. He almost died during the operation because the doctors did not give him the right kind of (anesthesia / complication).
  4. Doctors are now able to (cure / implant) many types of sickness that were usually fatal in the past.
  5. Before (augmenting / injecting) a painkiller, the dentist rubbed cloves on the woman’s gums to numb them.
Answer Key
TOEFL Prep I
  1. b
  2. d
  3. a
  4. c
  5. a
TOEFL Prep II
  1. procedure
  2. obese
  3. anesthesia
  4. cure
  5. injecting
Answer Key

TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

Since 1992, the number of cosmetic surgery procedures has risen 175 percent in the United States. Two of the most popular are liposuction and breast augmentation. In liposuction, the doctor inserts a small tube into the skin that sucks fat from the body. And while it may sound easy, it isn’t. Liposuction is so painful that people are often given anesthesia. What’s more, liposuction is not really a cure for obesity. Rather, it should be used when diet and exercise do not reduce fat in certain “trouble spots.” Another common cosmetic procedure is breast augmentation. In this procedure, an implant is inserted through the armpit, making the breasts appear larger. Breast augmentation usually leaves only a small scar. Some common complications include the effects of anesthesia, infection, swelling, redness, bleeding, and pain. To reduce these risks, consumers are advised to be sure that their surgeon is board-certified.

Bonus StructureWhat’s more means “in addition; even more importantly.”

  1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?
    • a. Cosmetic surgery is dangerous.
    • b. Many people do not have cosmetic surgery because of the pain.
    • c. Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in the United States.
    • d. Breast reduction is almost as popular as breast augmentation.
  2. In the underlined sentence, trouble spots refers to
    • a. places where people are commonly overweight
    • b. methods of exercise that aren’t effective
    • c. parts of the body where liposuction doesn’t work
    • d. specific areas on the body where fat is hard to minimize
Answer Key
Answer Key
  1. c
  2. d
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