4000 Essential English Words 6 » Unit 19: Seizures Then and Now

Word List
  • airway [ˈɛərwei] n.
    An airway is the passage by which air reaches a person’s lungs.
    Since he was sick, mucus would occasionally get stuck in his airway.
  • Almighty [ɔːlˈmaiti] n.
    The Almighty is a name for a god in a religion.
    Before eating, they thanked the Almighty for their food.
  • advent [ˈædvənt] n.
    An advent is the arrival or beginning of an important person, thing, or event.
    During the advent of radio, very few programs actually played music.
  • constellation [ˌkɒnstəˈleiʃən] n.
    A constellation is a group of stars with a recognizable shape.
    That constellation in the shape of a square is named after a flying horse.
  • definitive [diˈfinətiv] adj.
    If something is definitive, then it is the most official.
    This library has the definitive collection of books on ancient Egypt.
  • equate [iˈkweit] v.
    To equate one thing with another is to compare them and consider them very similar.
    She equated the man’s messy appearance with a lack of responsibility.
  • inhale [inˈheil] v.
    To inhale means to take air or a smell into the lungs.
    The camper inhaled the cool and fresh mountain air and felt relaxed.
  • invoke [inˈvouk] v.
    To invoke something is to mention it to support an argument or ask for help.
    Before going into battle, the soldier invoked the name of his god for protection.
  • lunar [ˈluːnər] adj.
    If something is lunar, then it is related to the moon.
    During a lunar eclipse, Earth’s shadow darkens the moon’s surface.
  • novelty [ˈnɒvəlti] n.
    A novelty is something that is new, original, or strange.
    Ice cream was a novelty for him since he rarely had any.
  • outmoded [ˌautˈmoudid] adj.
    If something is outmoded, then it is no longer in fashion or use.
    Black and white television sets are outmoded.
  • personalize [ˈpəːrsənəlaiz] v.
    To personalize something means to design it to meet a person’s unique needs.
    He personalized the woman’s exercises to give her a better workout.
  • pertain [pəːrˈtein] v.
    To pertain to something means to be related or connected to it.
    All of the lawyer’s questions pertained to events around the night of the crime.
  • primal [ˈpraiməl] adj.
    If something is primal, then it is very basic or related to the origin of something.
    Cooking the food over the camp fire felt like a primal way of making a meal.
  • psychiatric [ˌsaikiˈætrik] adj.
    If something is psychiatric, then it is related to mental illness or its treatment.
    The doctor said the patient might have a psychiatric problem.
  • psychiatry [saiˈkaiətri] n.
    Psychiatry is the study and treatment of mental illness.
    Studying psychiatry has taught me a lot about mental illness.
  • reflex [ˈriːfleks] n.
    A reflex is an unconscious action in which a body part responds to an event.
    There was a reflex when the doctor hit his knee with a rubber hammer.
  • seizure [ˈsiːʒər] n.
    A seizure is sudden illness in which the body loses control and shakes.
    Bright flashing lights can cause seizures in children.
  • session [ˈseʃən] n.
    A session is a meeting at a regular time in order to discuss and solve an issue.
    Every three months the managers met in a session to discuss regional sales.
  • utensil [juːˈtensəl] n.
    A utensil is a common tool or container.
    It seemed that a fork was the wrong utensil for trying to eat the soup.
Exercise 1

Choose the one that is similar in meaning to the given word.

  1. lunar
    • a. sun
    • b. moon
    • c. stars
    • d. earth
  2. reflex
    • a. response
    • b. delay
    • c. broken
    • d. squeeze
  3. pertain
    • a. piece
    • b. fact
    • c. describe
    • d. relate
  4. utensil
    • a. horn
    • b. badge
    • c. spoon
    • d. glove
  5. outmoded
    • a. old-fashioned
    • b. new
    • c. outdoors
    • d. innovative
Exercise 2

Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the word bank.

WORD BLANK
novelty constellation definitive personalized
utensil pertain reflexes seizure
psychiatry lunar    

The doctors thought that too much sugar caused the 1___________ .
However, their findings weren’t 2___________ .

A star burning at night as brightly as the moon was quite a(n) 3___________ .
In fact, the 4___________ glow was actually not as bright.

Those seven stars form the 5___________ known as the Big Dipper.
A dipper is a(n) 6___________ shaped like a spoon used for getting water.

There are many methods used in 7___________ to help cure mental illnesses.
They are all 8___________ to the specific needs of the patient.

The body’s 9___________ are too quick to be controlled by the brain.
These actions 10___________ to the nerves and spine rather than the brain.

Exercise 3

Choose the one that is similar in meaning to the given word.

  1. inhale
    • a. breathe
    • b. exit
    • c. sell
    • d. borrow
  2. psychiatric
    • a. passionate
    • b. cozy
    • c. mental
    • d. similar
  3. advent
    • a. start
    • b. moment
    • c. candle
    • d. pipe
  4. equate
    • a. prepare
    • b. drip
    • c. sleep
    • d. relate
  5. session
    • a. ocean
    • b. sweater
    • c. rubbish
    • d. meeting
  6. invoke
    • a. allow
    • b. resist
    • c. request
    • d. divide
  7. Almighty
    • a. fire
    • b. capital
    • c. god
    • d. tower
  8. primal
    • a. basic
    • b. bright
    • c. wooden
    • d. strict
  9. airway
    • a. cloud
    • b. throat
    • c. road
    • d. plane
  10. outmoded
    • a. wild
    • b. whole
    • c. dumb
    • d. old
Exercise 4

Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part.

  1. The coach designed to their unique needs a program for each of the athletes.
    ____________
  2. Jack’s parents had a weekly meeting with his teacher to discuss Jack’s schoolwork.
    ____________
  3. If you look at that group of stars in the sky, what do you see?
    ____________
  4. The priest asked the god to bless everyone in the church.
    ____________
  5. She compared the pain in her back to being stabbed with a knife.
    ____________
Answer Key
Exercise 1
  1. b
  2. a
  3. d
  4. c
  5. a
Exercise 2
  1. seizure
  2. definitive
  3. novelty
  4. lunar
  5. constellation
  6. utensil
  7. psychiatry
  8. personalized
  9. reflexes
  10. pertain
Exercise 3
  1. a
  2. c
  3. a
  4. d
  5. d
  6. c
  7. c
  8. a
  9. b
  10. d
Exercise 4
  1. personalized
  2. session
  3. constellation
  4. Almighty
  5. equated
Answer Key
Seizures Then and Now

If a person who lived 200 years ago was treated for a seizure today, they would be surprised by the treatment’s novelty. That’s because doctors in the 1800s were influenced more by primal medical beliefs than science.

Rather than thinking the brain caused seizures, people in the 180' still thought they were the result of strange forces. They equated seizures with the work of evil spirits. Others felt that the seizures had a cosmic or lunar cause. They believed that the cycles of the moon and constellations could make someone have a seizure.

During a session to treat a patient who had seizures, doctors would force the patient to invoke the grace of the Almighty. They thought if the patient did this, then the patient would rid themselves of the evil spirits causing the seizures.

The advent of modern psychiatry occurred during the 1800s. At that time people who suffered from seizures were placed in psychiatric hospitals. They were treated like they were insane. However, none of the outmoded treatments worked.

It wasn’t until the late 1850s that the causes of seizures were understood. We know today that these causes pertain to the brain. Misfired signals from the brain cause a jerking reflex in the body. These usually occur when someone is very tired.

Once the causes of seizures were known, definitive treatments were developed. Today, treatments range from taking pills to having surgery. Treatment is personalized according to the type of seizure the patient has.

Even today, some people are unsure about seizures. Their most common mistake is thinking that a person having a seizure will swallow their tongue. They often shove some utensil in the person’s mouth. However, this doesn’t help. The utensil often blocks the airway and prevents the person from inhaling. Yet most of the public no longer fear people who have seizures. Instead, they can now help and comfort a person if they have a seizure.

Reading Comprehension

Part A: Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Rewrite the false statements to make them true.

  1. _____ Doctors who treated patients for seizures in the 1800s were influenced by primal medical beliefs.
    • _____________________________________________________
  2. _____ Doctors still used outmoded treatments even after definitive treatments were developed.
    • _____________________________________________________
  3. _____ The cause of seizures used to be equated to the work of the Almighty.
    • _____________________________________________________
  4. _____ Today, care for people with seizures is better because treatment sessions are more personalized.
    • _____________________________________________________
  5. _____ The cause of seizures pertain to misfired signals in the brain that cause a jerking reflex in the body.
    • _____________________________________________________

Part B: Answer the questions.

  1. Why would someone from the past be surprised by the novelty of today’s treatments for seizures?
    _____________
  2. How does a utensil placed in someone’s airway prevent them from inhaling?
    _____________
  3. During the advent of modern psychiatry, how were people treated in psychiatric hospitals?
    _____________
  4. What did some people believe constellations and lunar cycles could cause?
    _____________
  5. What did doctors force seizure patients to invoke in order to treat their seizures?
    _____________
Answer Key
Answer Key
Reading Comprehension
Part A
  1. T
  2. F / Doctors did not use outdated treatments after definitive treatments were developed.
  3. F / The cause of seizures used to be equated to the work of evil spirits.
  4. T
  5. T
Part B
  1. He or she would be surprised by the treatment's novelty because doctors in the 1800s were influenced more by primal medical beliefs than science.
  2. The utensil often blocks the airway and prevents the person from inhaling.
  3. They were treated like they were insane.
  4. They believed that constellations and lunar cycles could make someone have a seizure.
  5. Doctors would force the patient to invoke the grace of the Almighty.
Favorite Books

The activities in "4000 Essential English Words" are specially designed to make use of important learning conditions. Firstly, the words are introduced using sentence definitions and an example sentence. 4000 Essential English Words 1: 600 words (Unit 1 - Unit 30).

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The activities in "4000 Essential English Words" are specially designed to make use of important learning conditions. Firstly, the words are introduced using sentence definitions and an example sentence. 4000 Essential English Words 2: 600 words (Unit 1 - Unit 30).

Read more

The activities in "4000 Essential English Words" are specially designed to make use of important learning conditions. Firstly, the words are introduced using sentence definitions and an example sentence. 4000 Essential English Words 3: 600 words (Unit 1 - Unit 30).

Read more

The activities in "4000 Essential English Words" are specially designed to make use of important learning conditions. Firstly, the words are introduced using sentence definitions and an example sentence. 4000 Essential English Words 4: 600 words (Unit 1 - Unit 30).

Read more

The activities in "4000 Essential English Words" are specially designed to make use of important learning conditions. Firstly, the words are introduced using sentence definitions and an example sentence. 4000 Essential English Words 5: 600 words (Unit 1 - Unit 30).

Read more