400 Must Have Words for the TOEFL » LESSON 33 - Friendship

Word List
  • affection [əˈfekʃən] n.
    An emotional closeness or warmth
    I show affection for my girlfriend by spending time with her, not by spending money on her.
    Usage tips     Affection is often followed by a for phrase.
    Parts of speech     affectionate adj.
  • associate [əˈsəuʃɪeɪt] v.
    To regularly spend time together
    Carol doesn’t associate with people who smoke.
    Usage tips     Associate is often followed by a with phrase.
    Parts of speech     association n., associate n.
  • bond [bɒnd] n.
    A close connection
    Some researchers say that there is an especially strong emotional bond between twins.
    Usage tips     A between phrase—indicating the things that are connected—often follows bond.
    Parts of speech     bond v.
  • clique [kliːk] n.
    A small group of friends who are unfriendly to people outside the group
    High-schoolers form cliques to gain security and acceptance.
    Usage tips     Clique indicates a negative feeling toward a group.
    Parts of speech     cliquish adj.
  • confide [kənˈfaɪd] v.
    To tell very personal things
    Teenagers are more willing to confide in a friend than in a parent.
    Usage tips     Confide is almost always followed by an in phrase.
    Parts of speech     confidence n., confidant n., confidential adj.
  • exclusive [ɪksˈkluːsɪv] adj.
    Keeping out all but a few people
    The most exclusive universities accept only a small percentage of people who want to attend.
    Usage tips     Exclusive can indicate a positive opinion,but in the context of friendship, it can mean “attached only to one person.”
    Parts of speech     exclude v., exclusion n., exclusively adv.
  • fluctuate [ˈflʌktjʊeɪt] v.
    To change often, from one condition to another
    Earth’s climate fluctuates between warm periods and cold periods.
    Usage tips     Fluctuate is usually followed by a between phrase (or by a from . . . to structure).
    Parts of speech     fluctuation n.
  • in common .adv
    As a shared characteristic
    Billy and Heather have a lot in common—basketball, a love of pizza, and an interest in snakes.
    Usage tips     In common very often appears with the verb to have.
  • solidarity [ˌsɒlɪˈdærɪtɪ] n.
    Standing together despite pressure to move apart
    Many student groups declared solidarity with the Latino Student Association in their effort to get a Spanish-speaking principal.
    Usage tips     Solidarity is usually used in political contexts.
  • willing [ˈwɪlɪŋ] adj.
    Agreeable and ready to do something
    Because of their long friendship, Professor Gardner was willing to say a few words at Jones’s birthday celebration.
    Usage tips     Willing is almost always followed by a to + verb structure.
    Parts of speech     will v., will n., willingness n.

TOEFL Prep I Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to each word in the left-hand column. Write the letter in the blank.

______ 1. affection(a) liking someone or something
______ 2. bond(b) to move back and forth
______ 3. clique(c) standing together in a political cause
______ 4. fluctuate(d) a connection
______ 5. solidarity(e) an exclusive group

TOEFL Prep II Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

  1. Charles is (exclusive / willing) to be friends with Dory, but he is already dating another girl.
  2. If I (associate / confide) in you, do you promise to keep what I say a secret?
  3. When it comes to weather, Minnesota and North Dakota have a lot (in common / in a bond).
  4. One of the main reasons to go to an exclusive college is that you get to (associate / fluctuate) with some of the country’s future leaders.
  5. The court said that the club’s membership rules were unjustly (willing/ exclusive) because they kept out people of certain ethnic groups.
Answer Key
TOEFL Prep I
  1. a
  2. d
  3. e
  4. b
  5. c
TOEFL Prep II
  1. willing
  2. confide
  3. in common
  4. associate
  5. exclusive
Answer Key

TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

You can walk into any high school and spot the cliques: the jocks hang out here, the geeks there, the Goths and preppies in their areas. Teenagers feel a strong need to belong to a group, to associate with people with whom they share common interests or goals. Since adolescence is often a time when teens feel turmoil in their home lives, they seek affection and friendship outside the home.They look for other young people to bond with when their parents don’t seem to “understand.” Teens going through the various crises of adolescence can more easily confide in others their own age, with whom they have more in common. Teen cliques are by no means exclusive; membership can fluctuateon an almost daily basis, but the important thing is that group members feel a sense of solidarity and are willing to stick together.

  1. According to the reading, why do adolescents search for friendship outside the home?
    • a. They want to be accepted by the jocks and Goths.
    • b. They think their parents don’t understand the problems they face.
    • c. They want to be in a different clique every day.
    • d. They want to talk about their parents with other teenagers.
  2. According to the reading, do teens stay in the same groups all the time?
    • a. Yes, because their parents want them to.
    • b. Yes, because they share common interests.
    • c. No, they may move from group to group quite frequently.
    • d. No, most groups don’t accept new members.
Answer Key
Answer Key
  1. b
  2. c
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